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A bulk sub-femtoliter in vitro compartmentalization system using super-fine electrosprays

Overview of attention for article published in Scientific Reports, May 2016
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Title
A bulk sub-femtoliter in vitro compartmentalization system using super-fine electrosprays
Published in
Scientific Reports, May 2016
DOI 10.1038/srep26257
Pubmed ID
Authors

Bineet Sharma, Yuzuru Takamura, Tatsuya Shimoda, Manish Biyani

Abstract

The extreme miniaturization of biological and chemical assays in aqueous-droplet compartments enables spatiotemporal control for large-scale parallel experimentation and can thus permit new capabilities for "digitizing" directed molecular evolution methodologies. We report a remarkably facile bulk method to generate mega-scale monodisperse sub-femtoliter aqueous droplets by electrospray, using a prototype head with super-fine inkjet technology. Moreover, the electrostatic inkjet nozzle that injects the aqueous phase when immersed within an immiscible phase (an optimized oil/surfactant mixture) has the advantage of generating cell-like sub-femtoliter compartments for biomolecule encapsulation and successive biological and chemical reactions. Sub-femtoliter droplets of both liquid (water-in-oil, volumes ranging from 0.2 to 6.4 fL) and gel bead (agarose-in-oil, volume ranging from 0.3 to 15.6 fL) compartments with average sizes of 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively, were successfully generated using an inkjet nozzle at a speed of more than 10(5) droplets per second. We demonstrated the applicability of this system by synthesizing fluorescent proteins using a cell-free expression system inside electrosprayed sub-femtoliter droplets at an accelerated rate, thereby extending the utility of in vitro compartmentalization with improved analytical performance for a top-down artificial cellular system.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 40 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 3%
Unknown 39 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 8 20%
Student > Master 7 18%
Professor 5 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 10%
Student > Postgraduate 3 8%
Other 8 20%
Unknown 5 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 9 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 15%
Materials Science 5 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 13%
Chemical Engineering 3 8%
Other 5 13%
Unknown 7 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 May 2016.
All research outputs
#6,682,752
of 7,724,913 outputs
Outputs from Scientific Reports
#26,041
of 30,515 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#224,178
of 268,777 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Scientific Reports
#2,496
of 3,033 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,724,913 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 30,515 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 15.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,777 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 3,033 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.